Rashkov – an ancient settlement on the bank of the Dniester
Rashkovo (MDL. Raşcov, Ukr. Rashkіv previously Rashkov) is located in the south-eastern part of the district on the left bank of the Dniester. It is one of the oldest cities, founded in 1402 as a trading station on the river Dniester. Rashkov and its surroundings are famous for their cultural and historical riches, which are among the treasures of the Moldovan national heritage.
Archaeological excavations in the Soviet period have shown that people living in the vicinity of Rashkov since ancient times. In the VI-VII centuries. It begins the Slav colonization of the Dniester River basin. In the middle of the twentieth century Transnistrian land was part of Kievan Rus. In the thirties of the XII century, they become neighbors abroad Galician principality. In the XI-XIII centuries. there lived a settled population of old Russian and Polovtsian. Later the edge of the Horde suffered ruin and a long time has not been settled. In 1387 the area became part of the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Here, for the protection of the southern limits of the state, the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas builds a fortress “Kalaur” (to this day has not been preserved), which in 1402 already appears in the list of cities and castles, were part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Rashkov himself emerged as prisёlok the fortress. Later Duke Vytautas granted Kalaur with Rashkovo Andrew Sidimuntu. In 1442 Kalaur with vast steppe zone stretching to the shores of the Black Sea, was given to the life tenure Buceatchi. In 1545 Kalaur was in the hands of Gregory Chechel-Sidimuntovicha.
The village is divided into several parts of the historic Center, Pokrovka, Hem, Mlyn. The main building materials are limestone and wood, which contributes to the abundance of stone and wood in the vicinity of the village. Local houses combine the Ukrainian and Moldovan architectural elements.
In 1569, after the unification of Poland and Lithuania entered the Bratslav Rashkov powiat as part of Malopolska Province Polish Crown. At the end of the XVI century Rashkovsky settlement grew, so that was the only suburb Kalaur Rashkov. At that time, Jan Zamoyski gets Rashkov among other vast estates of Transnistria. In 1617, the fortress and Kalaur Rashkov were voluntarily burned by the Poles in favor of the Turks, who, by signing an agreement with Bush in Hetman Zolkiewski, demanded the abolition of border fortresses, under the pretext that they are dens of which Cossack raids on Turkish possessions. Settlement Rashkov was restored around 1646 and then was referred to as “a strong fortress on the border of a deserted steppe.”
The first mention of Jews Rashkov refers to 1637.
In 1648, the victory of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky over the Poles in the battle of Yellow Waters and Korsun, a significant part of Ukraine was liberated. The villages of Kamenka and Rashkov part of the Bratslav regiment.
It emerged while union Hetman of Ukraine and Moldova was sealed by marriage with the daughter of Timothy Khmelnitsky Moldovan ruler Vasile Lupu Ruxanda, signed in Iasi, August 21, 1652. It is known that after the wedding Timosha Ruxanda went to Rashkov. But in September 1653 Timothy Khmelnitsky was mortally wounded at Suceava. After the death of the son of Bogdan Khmelnitsky gave Rashkov possession widow Timothy – Ruxanda.